This picture shows a hypothetical model of adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP). Individual amino acids are represented by circles. Missense mutations may affect the stability of the ALD protein. The effect of a missense mutation on ALDP stability by means of immunofluorescence (IF) in primary fibroblasts was investigated for >200 independent (non-recurrent) missense mutations. The results are presented in this figure. Green circles indicate missense mutation that do not affect protein stability; red circles those that result in no detectable ALDP (see remark below); orange circles represent mutations that result in reduced ALDP expression; blue circles indicated amino acids residues at which multiple missense mutations have been reported that result in different outcomes. The black circles indicate amino acids at which a missense mutation was identified, but for which no expression data is available. Overall, >65% of all missense mutations result in reduced levels or absence of detectable ALDP (Taken from Kemp et al. (2001) Hum Mutat 18(6):499-515).
All other mutations (including in frame amino acid deletions and truncations near the carboxyl terminus like p.Gln672X result in the absence of detectable levels of ALDP.
This picture may be used for scientific presentations; however, the source (www.x-ald.nl) should be indicated clearly. For more information and questions please contact s.kemp [at_symbol] amc.uva.nl
To be absent or not?
In 2011, using a novel detection method based on Western blot, Zhang et al. (2011) established that residual protein is actually present in many patient fibroblast lines harboring a missense mutation, although often below the level of detection by IF (see Table). This indicates that only few newly synthesized mutant ALDP molecules fold correctly and incorporate into the peroxisomal membrane, while most are misfolded or assume their topology so slowly that they are rejected by the cell’s quality control machinery.
|mutation||immunofluorescence||immunoblot (% of control)|
See Zhang et al. (2011) Biochem J 436(3):547-57 for experimental details.